十月廿五日是台湾光复节:
 
张灯结彩喜洋洋,欢喜 (胜利) 歌儿大家唱,唱遍城市和村庄,八年血战不能忘
不能忘,长思量
不能忘,长思量
国家恩惠地久天长
不能忘
 
这是国小时候唱的台湾光复纪念歌,歌词也不知道有没有记错。
 
不知道从什么时候起,台湾庆祝光复节的气氛愈来愈淡了,甚至有领袖级人物公开抨击为慰安妇讨公道的行动。我觉得很悲哀。不论任何人,都没有权力恶意曲解历史的真相;背判历史,罪无可逭。我们固然不应该据此妖魔化日本 (我本身有不少日本友人,都相当的可爱善良),但是日本政府的暧昧推托态度着实伤害与友邦人民的感情,究竟目的是什么?刻意挑起国族之间的仇恨吗?
 
前阵子,Channel NewsAsia 播出二次大战特集 “1945 Asia Remembers The Fallen”。节目中访谈了不少海内外的大战生还者,我看着那些行将就木的老人家们,说到了当年的骨肉离散惨剧,仍是一个个涕泪纵横,我也跟着红了眼。我不懂,日本政府有种接受我们的以德报怨,为什么没种实实在在面对自己的过错?
 
这是我前天从 The Straits Times 上读到的,感触很深,再次印证了这句话:
 
You never find yourself until you face the truth.
 
其中谈到了日人对于此事的看法,我倒是不那么惊讶,也没什么特别的情绪反应。他们的历史课本,是被篡改过的,所以你又怎么能要求他们了解受害者的苦与痛?对照于日本政府的态度,那群每年特别到台北中正纪念堂向  蒋公致敬的日本老人们 (许多是当年的老兵),显得格外品格高尚。
 
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Japan should follow Germany’s example and close the door on its past so that it can move forward in its relations with other Asian countries.
 
Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong (吴作栋) noted that many European and Asian leaders have also urged Japan to do so.
 
“The Germans openly recognise what Hitler had done and they sort of just cleansed themselves of their past, that it was wrong,” he told the Asahi Shimbun (朝日新闻).
 
Once they recognised they were wrong, they were very open about it and did what was necessary to close that chapter of their history, he said.
 
Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi’s (小泉纯一郎) visits to the Yasukuni Shrine (靖国神社) have become a tumbling  block to better ties between Japan and its Asian neighbors, especially China and South Korea.
 
“This, of course, is an emotionally sensitive question because many people still remember thje devastation of the Second World War and the part played by Japan in that war,” said Mr. Goh.
 
“When Prime Minister Koizumi visits the Yasukuni Shrine, whatever his explanation, people outside Japan regard it as a symbolic visit by the Prime MInister to pay respects to the war dead. And of course, the war dead include the — what term do you use? — Class A Criminals.”
 
Asked why China continues to protest against Mr. Koizumi’s shrine visits despite the war apology he made while in Bandung in April, Mr. Goh said:“You have an apology and then he visited the Yasukuni Shrine. So, to the Chinese, they say, well, you are not quite sincere. Right or wrong, that’s the reaction of the Chinese.”
 
He added:“In the case of Germany, the words and the actions matched. So France and Germany, Poland and Germany, they can get on. They look towards the future.”
 
He urged both Japan and China to address the issue as bilateral tention would affect the region.
 
Similar tensions between Tokyo and Seoul were also bad for the region but to a lesser degree because the South Korean economy is smaller than that of China.
 
Still, any tension will mean some instability in NOrth-east Asia, which in turn will affect general confidence in the entire region , he said.
 
He called on countries in the region to address the question of how they could “cut loose the past” and move forward.
 
“Nothing is gained by being bogged down by the past. I mean, it has happened, it was a reality. Relations locked in by the past means you cannot have better relations in the future.”
 
Singapore, he indicated, succeeded in resolving the issue.
 
“We, too, had many people killed during the Japanese Occupation here, but we are a practical people. The chapter has been closed. Japan has made the necessary atonement for the war dead in Singapore. So, we closed the chapter and look forward and today, we have a solid, sound excellent relationship with Japan.”
 
Mr. Goh pointed out that Japan’s failure to close the chapter on its past had cost the country the support of many Asian countries  over its bid for a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council (联合国安理会).
 
“Unless Japan recognises what has happened in the past, it is difficult for many countries to support Japan. Many countries here were victims of Japanese invasion during the Second World War. So, the element of distrust is there.”
 
But Singapore, he said, had supported Japan because Singapore saw Japan as a contender if the United Nations Security Council was to be  expanded.
 
~ By Kwan Weng Kin, The Straits Times, 5 November, 2005
 
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当年,面对困兽犹斗的日本军国主义者,美国策划在最短时间以最小代价战胜日本,逼其投降,在广岛投下第一枚原子弹,数日后又在长崎投下第二枚。
 

在各方压力下,日本天皇决定无条件投降,一九四五年八月十五日上午向全世界发布投降诏书,第二次大战成为历史。这是血的教训,但抗日战争的胜利并不是完全的胜利。侵略者没有为战胜罪行付出代价,战争的祸首天皇裕仁没有受到惩罚,日本没有支付战争赔款,没有谢罪。

 

日本军队发动的南京大屠杀,比历史上的扬州十日、嘉定三屠,更为残酷和血腥,无数冤魂期待要讨回公道。血债没有血偿,首先是当年国民党政府和日本达成谅解,到一九七二年中日两国实现关系正常化,所发表的 《联合声明》 已对历史问题作了总结。这是否算是 「以德报怨」?

 

若是 「以怨报怨」,有如 「以眼还眼,以牙还牙」,这主张早已见于 《圣经》 旧约出埃及记的二十一章第二十三至二十五节:「若有别害,就要以命偿命,以眼还眼,以牙还牙,以手还手,以脚还脚,以烙还烙,以伤还伤,以打还打。」

 

在远古时代,惩罚概念以对等补偿为主要根据。不止旧约时代的希伯来人如此,当时文明较发达的社会都遵守此一原则;公元前一七五〇年巴比伦的 《汉摩拉比法典》,也记载了 「一个人如果毁掉别人的眼,则应以毁掉他自己的眼为惩罚」。在几千年后的今天,用文明眼光来看,这样的律法十分野蛮。

 

以怨报怨,容易陷入「冤冤相报何时了」的泥潭,但世界上大部分人到今天仍喜欢选择这种种报复方式。看看印度人与巴基斯坦人、以色列人与巴勒斯坦人的争执,以至美国与伊斯兰 「圣战」 之间的 「文明冲突」,演变为「以怨报怨」的恶性循环,很难回到和平的轨道。

 

如果不是 「以怨报怨」,还有什么和解渠道?《论语●宪问》 记载,有人问孔子:「以德报怨,何如?」 孔子反问:「何以报德?以直报怨,以德报德。」 这是儒家的 「恕道」,反对报复,但也不主张曲意隐忍。

「以直报怨」,「直」 者,公平公正,不偏不倚。孔子强调,一个人做了坏事,必须得到公平公正应有的惩罚,是做坏事的人能够有所警惕而改过。但这境界仍及不上 「以德报怨」。

 

以德报怨,典出老子 《道德经》 第六十三章:「为无为,事无事,味无味。大小多少,报怨以德。」 把 「以德报怨」 与 「以直报怨」 相比,代表了处理人际关系的两种不同方法。「以德报怨」 重视潜移默化;「以直报怨」 重视外在教化的示范,都给人留下永恒的思考。

 

孔子的 「直」,是根据事实采取公平态度,「直」 是恩怨分明、善恶分明;「直」 是爱人与恨人之间取得平衡,「直」 是中庸之道。但老子更提升一个层次,不以 「怨」 为 「怨」,许多过错的出现,原因错综复杂,不妨以更宽大胸怀处理。「冤家宜解不宜结」,解 「怨」 的最好办法,莫如 「报怨以德」,摆脱报复的阴影。

 

这种 「以德报怨」 的精神,其实也与耶稣的教诲呼应:「要爱你们的仇敌」;「有人打你的右脸,连左脸也转过来由他打」。在基督教的教义,人是罪人,当种种藩篱崩溃,人其实可以十分堕落。先知耶利米这样慨叹:「人心比万物都诡诈,坏到极处,谁能视透呢?」

 

当年日本军国主义者的侵华罪行,是否罪无可恕?又或者正如耶稣被钉十字架后所作的祷告:「父啊,赦免他们,因为他们所作的,他们不晓得。」 (路加福音二十三章三十四节)

 

老子虽有 「报怨以德」 之言,但 《道德经》 七十九章也提到 「和大怨必有余怨,安可以为善」,表明他认为深仇大恨不可以马虎。

 

中国人对日本人可以 「报怨以德」,但这并不表示日本对当年罪行就可以不认错、不道歉。该宽恕就宽恕,该惩罚就惩罚,否则上帝干吗创造地狱?

 

~ 转载于 《读者文摘》,岑逸飞 撰